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Gateway Practice 4



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

Directions: Use the diagram to answer questions 1 and 2.
gateway_practice_4_files/i0020000.jpg
What is structure E?
a.
The epiglottis
c.
The diaphragm
b.
The trachea
d.
The larynx
 

2. 

Which respiratory system structure closes off the trachea when a person swallows?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
E
 

3. 

Perspiration helps maintain body temperature by
a.
washing bacteria off the skin
c.
evaporating and saving body heat
b.
evaporating and carrying body heat away
d.
preventing heat from entering the body
 

4. 

When a person's body needs water, the brain helps maintain homeostasis by sending signals that make the person
a.
feel thirsty
c.
put on a sweater
b.
perspire
d.
feel tired
 

5. 

What is one thing adrenaline does to the body during stress?
a.
It makes the pupils of the eyes become smaller.
c.
It stimulates the appetite.
b.
It reduces hearing.
d.
It increases the heart rate.
 

6. 

Which cells in the immune system identifiy pathogens and distinguish one pathogen from another?
a.
T cells
c.
Phagocytes
b.
B cells
d.
Red blood cells
 

7. 

When a person's own immune system produces antibodies in response to the presence of a pathogen, that person has
a.
an allergic reaction
c.
active immunity
b.
passive immunity
d.
an antibiotic
 

8. 

Directions: Use the diagram to answer the question.
gateway_practice_4_files/i0090000.jpg
Which of the following describes what is happening in the diagram?
a.
Antibodies destroy pathogens by infecting T cells.
c.
Antibodies destroy pathogens by binding to antigens on the pathogen
b.
Antibodies destroy pathogens by breaking the cell membranes of pathogens.
d.
Antibodies destroy pathogens by destroying phagocytes.
 

9. 

How does the body acquire active immunity to a disease without getting the disease?
a.
Through vaccination
c.
By means of the inflammatory response
b.
Through an allergic reaction
d.
By means of passive immunity
 

10. 

What is the process of heating food or a liquid to a temperature that kills most pathogens?
a.
Sanitation
c.
Sterilization
b.
Pasteurization
d.
None of the above
 

11. 

Which of the following is an advance in health care technology that helps to improve quality of life?
a.
Gene therapy
c.
Ultrasound
b.
Bionics
d.
All of the above
 

12. 

During DNA replication, adenine (A) always pairs with
a.
guanine (G)
c.
thymine(T)
b.
cytosine(C)
d.
adenine(A)
 

13. 

Directions: Use the diagram to answer the question.
gateway_practice_4_files/i0140000.jpg
Each rung of the DNA ladder is made of
a.
a single nitrogen base
c.
a pair of carbon bases
b.
a pair of nitrogen bases
d.
a single carbon base
 

14. 

What does the notation Tt mean to geneticists?
a.
Two dominant alleles
c.
At least one recessive allele
b.
Two recessive alleles
d.
One dominant allele and one recessive allele
 

15. 

An organism's physical appearance is its
a.
genotype
c.
codominance
b.
phenotype
d.
heterozygous
 

16. 

Directions: Use the diagram to answer questions 16 through 18.
gateway_practice_4_files/i0170000.jpg
If flower color is determined by the rules of Mendelian genetics, what is the phenotype of the offspring in the Fgateway_practice_4_files/i0170001.jpg generation?
a.
Ww
c.
WW
b.
Purple
d.
White
 

17. 

In the Fgateway_practice_4_files/i0180000.jpg generation, what percentage of the offspring have purple flowers?
a.
25%
c.
75%
b.
50%
d.
100%
 

18. 

In the Fgateway_practice_4_files/i0190000.jpg generation, what percentage of the offspring have white flowers?
a.
25%
c.
75%
b.
50%
d.
100%
 

19. 

An organism's genotype is its
a.
genetic makeup
c.
physical appearance
b.
feather color
d.
stem height
 

20. 

Which of these traits is controlled by a gene with multiple alleles?
a.
Straight hairline
c.
Widow's peak
b.
Smile dimples
d.
Blood type
 

21. 

What factors can affect a person's height?
a.
Genes only
c.
Both genes and environmental factors
b.
Environmental factors only
d.
The sex chromosomes a person inherits
 

22. 

Why are sex-linked traits more common in males than in females?
a.
All alleles on the X chromosome are dominant.
c.
A recessive allele on the X chromosome will always produce the trait in a male.
b.
All alleles on the Y chromosome are recessive.
d.
Any allele on the Y chromosome will be codominant with the matching allele on the X chromosome.
 

23. 

Genetic disorders are caused by
a.
pedigrees
c.
dominant alleles
b.
mutations
d.
sickle-shaped cells
 

24. 

Hemophilia is caused by
a.
a recessive allele on the X chromosome
c.
a dominant allele
b.
an extra chromosome
d.
a codominant allele
 

25. 

Down syndrome most often occurs when
a.
a person inherits a recessive allele
c.
sickle-shaped cells become stuck in blood vessels
b.
chromosomes fail to separate properly during meiosis
d.
blood fails to clot properly
 

26. 

Cloning results in two organisms that are
a.
both adult mammals
c.
genetically similar
b.
produced from cuttings
d.
genetically identical
 

27. 

Which of these is an example of the benefits of genetic engineering?
a.
Cross-breeding to create disease-resistant crops
c.
Analyzing karyotypes and pedigree charts
b.
Making human insulin to treat people with diabetes
d.
Growing a new plant from a cutting
 

28. 

What procedure helps doctors diagnose a genetic disorder before a baby is born?
a.
Genetic engineering
c.
Amniocentesis
b.
Selective breeding
d.
Cloning
 

29. 

Which is the broadest classification level?
a.
Family
c.
Phylum
b.
Kingdom
d.
Species
 

30. 

One characteristic used to place organisms into kingdoms is
a.
how they move
c.
their ability to make food
b.
where they live
d.
their ability to reproduce
 

31. 

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic that biologists use to classify animals?
a.
The animal's body structure
c.
Where the animal lives
b.
The animal's DNA
d.
The way that the animal develops as an embryo
 

32. 

Which kingdom includes only prokaryotes?
a.
Eubacteria
c.
Plant
b.
Protist
d.
Fungi
 

33. 

Which of the following characteristics do all plants share?
a.
Being unicellular
c.
Being prokaryotes
b.
Producing flowers
d.
Being autotrophs
 

34. 

Which kingdom includes only multicellular heterotrophs?
a.
Protist
c.
Plant
b.
Eubacteria
d.
Animal
 

35. 

Directions: Use the diagram to answer the question.
gateway_practice_4_files/i0360000.jpg
Which of the following is found in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells?
a.
Cell membrane
c.
Genetic material
b.
Nucleus
d.
Flagella
 

36. 

A fungus that is a parasite might feed on
a.
a person's skin
c.
bread
b.
a dead tree
d.
wet bathroom tiles
 

37. 

Which of the following is NOT a role of bacteria that live in human bodies?
a.
Digesting food
c.
Making vitamins
b.
Preventing disease-causing bacteria from attaching to your intestines
d.
Preventing diabetes
 

38. 

Which experiment is BEST to determine if temperature affects the growth of ivy plants?
a.
Keep one ivy plant in a dark refrigerator and another on a windowsill near a heater.
c.
Keep two ivy plants side by side, but water one with cold water and the other with warm water.
b.
Put one ivy plant in a shady window and another in a sunny window.
d.
Put one ivy plant in a cool place and another in a warm place, but give both the same amount of light and water.
 

39. 

The graph below shows the relative rates of action of a specific enzyme at different temperatures.
gateway_practice_4_files/i0400000.jpg
As the temperature increases from 30gateway_practice_4_files/i0400001.jpgC to 50gateway_practice_4_files/i0400002.jpgC, the rate of action of this enzyme
a.
remains the same
c.
decreases only
b.
increases only
d.
increases, then decreases
 

40. 

Directions: Use the following diagram to answer questions 40 and 41.
gateway_practice_4_files/i0410000.jpg
What does structure A in the diagram contain?
a.
Water
b.
Food
c.
Spores
d.
Leaves
 

41. 

What is structure D in the diagram?
a.
Rhizoid
b.
Capsule
c.
Cuticle
d.
Sporophyte
 



 
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